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How to Calculate GPA & CGPA in Nigerian Universities & Polytechnics (2024)

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During my first year at the University, myself and many classmates were clueless about how to calculate our GPA, let alone CGPA.

The process of calculating CGPA seemed like a complex mathematical task, and some students resorted to paying senior students for help with the calculation.

However, I want to assure you that calculating CGPA is not as daunting as it may seem.

It is actually quite simple, and you can do it on your own by following the steps outlined in this post.

In this article, I will guide you through the easy method to calculate your GPA for both your first and second semesters. You will also learn how to convert GPA to CGPA.

Keep in mind that the method for calculating GPA and CGPA is the same for all Nigerian universities, as outlined in this post.

This article will be particularly helpful for first-year and other students who may have questions about GPA and CGPA in Nigerian universities.

What is Nigerian Universities Grading System?

In Nigerian universities, the grading system is based on a wide range of scores.

Continuous assessment carries thirty (30) marks, while examination scores carry seventy (70) marks.

Your continuous assessment is composed of test scores, assignments, and class presentations.

Let me provide you with the grading system used in Nigerian universities:

SCORE GRADE POINTS REMARK
70 – 100 A 5 Excellent
60 – 69 B 4 Very Good
50 – 59 C 3 Good
45 – 49 D 2 Pass
40 – 44 E 1 Fair
0 – 39 F 0 Fail
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What is GPA?

GPA, which stands for Grade Point Average, reflects your academic achievement at a college or university.

To calculate your GPA, divide the Total Grade Points by the Total Course Units received.

Below is a sample of a first-year student’s first and second-semester results at the University.

First Semester Course Outline

COURSE CODE COURSE TITLE UNIT
ACC 101 Elements of Accounting I 2
COS 101 Introduction to Computer Science 3
PHI 101 Introduction to Logic 2
MAN 101 Principles of Small Business Economics 2
MTH 111 General Mathematics I 3
MAN 141 Elements of Business Economics I 3
GSP 101 The Use of English I  2
GSP 105 Natural Science I 2
Total 19

First Semester Result

COURSE CODE COURSE TITLE SCORE GRADE
ACC 101 Elements of Accounting I 46 D
COS 101 Introduction to Computer Science 75 A
PHI 101 Introduction to Logic 66 B
MAN 101 Principles of Small Business Economics 43 E
MTH 111 General Mathematics I 54 C
MAN 141 Elements of Business Economics I 87 A
GSP 101 The Use of English I  49 D
GSP 105 Natural Science I 57 C

First Semester GPA Calculation

COURSE CODE UNIT GRADE POINT UNIT X POINT TOTAL
ACC 101 2 D 2 2 x 2 4
COS 101 3 A 5 3 x 5 15
PHI 101 2 B 4 2 x 4 8
MAN 101 2 E 1 2 x 1 2
MTH 111 3 C 3 3 x 3 9
MAN 141 3 A 5 3 x 5 15
GSP 101  2 D 2 2 x 2 4
GSP 105 2 C 3 2 x 3 6
Total 19 25 63

CPA Calculation Formula

To calculate the CPA (Cumulative Point Average), you use the formula: Quality Point / Credit Unit or Total / Unit.

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In this formula:

Unit refers to Credit Unit.
Total represents Quality Point.

To get your GPA for the first semester, divide the Total Quality Point (TQP) by the Total Credit Unit (TCU).

For example:

Total Quality Point (TQP) = 63
Total Credit Unit (TCU) = 19
GPA = 63 / 19 = 3.32

According to our calculation, the CPA for the first semester is 3.32.

Now let us calculate the GPA for the second semester.

Second Semester Course Outline

COURSE CODE COURSE TITLE UNIT
ACC 102 Elements of Accounting II 2
PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology 2
BF 101 Introduction to Finance 2
MTH 112 General Mathematics II 2
MAN 142 Elements of Business Economics II 3
GSP 102 The Use of English II 2
GSP 106 Natural Science II 2
Total 15

Second Semester Result

The table below shows the second-semester result we would use for the calculation.

COURSE CODE COURSE TITLE SCORE GRADE
ACC 102 Elements of Accounting II 65 B
PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology 56 C
BF 101 Introduction to Finance 44 E
MTH 112 General Mathematics II 59 C
MAN 142 Elements of Business Economics II 78 A
GSP 102 The Use of English II  49 D
GSP 106 Natural Science II 81 A

Second Semester GPA Calculation

COURSE CODE UNIT GRADE POINT UNIT X POINT TOTAL
ACC 102 2 B 4 2 x 4 8
PSY 101 2 C 3 2 x 3 6
BF 101 2 E 1 2 x 1 2
MTH 112 2 C 3 2 x 3 6
MAN 142 3 A 5 3 x 5 15
GSP 102 2 D 2 2 x 2 4
GSP 106 2 A 5 2 x 5 10
Total 15 23 51

To calculate your GPA for the second semester, divide the total points by the total number of credit units.

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Total Quality Point (TQP) = 51
Total Credit Units (TCU) = 15
GPA = 51/15 = 3.4

Based on our calculation, the GPA for the first semester is 3.4.

Now, we can move on to calculate the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA).

What is CGPA?

CGPA, short for cumulative grade point average, involves combining your first and second semester GPAs.

In the University, an academic session includes both the first and second semesters.

To calculate the CGPA, you add up the Total Quality Point (TQP) and divide it by the Total Credit Unit (TCU) for both semesters of the first year.

The CGPA formula is expressed as Σ TQP/TCU.

FIRST YEAR TOTAL QUALITY POINT (TQP) TOTAL CREDIT UNIT (TCU)
First semester 63 19
Second semester 51 15
Total 114 34

CGPA = Σ TQP/TCU

CGPA = 114 + 34 = 3.35

Based on our calculations, the CGPA for the first year stands at 3.35.

Now, let’s proceed to calculate the cumulative CGPA for the entire four-year course.

How to Calculate Final Year CGPA

The CGPA at graduation is the sum of your Total Quality Points (TQP) and Total Credit Units (TCU) accumulated from your first to final year.

To calculate this, we will add up the Total Quality Point (TQP) and Total Credit Unit (TCU) for each academic session.

Here is the CGPA progression of a student from their first year to the final year.

LEVEL TOTAL QUALITY POINT (TQP) TOTAL CREDIT UNIT (TCU)
100 114 34
200 120 32
300 123 30
400 130 28
Total 487 124

Final CGPA = Σ TQP/TCU

Final CGPA = 487/124 = 3.93

From our calculation, the graduating CGPA is 3.93.

The same procedure applies to students studying a five (5) or six (6) years course at the University.

Nigerian Degree Categories

CGPA DEGREE CATEGORY
4.50 – 5.0 First Class
3.50 – 4.49 Second Class (Upper)
2.50 – 3.49 Second Class Lower
Less than 2.49 Third Class

Example of CGPA Calculation

Let’s go through the process of calculating your final CGPA step by step, starting from 100L to 500L:

  1. Multiply the GPA of each semester by the credit units for that semester to find the total grade points earned for each semester.
    • For example, in 100L, with a total of 30 credit units, the total grade points earned would be:
    • 1.80 GPA x 30 credit units = 54 grade points
  2. Add up the total grade points earned for all semesters. For all five years, the total grade points earned would be:
    • 54 + 45.6 + 95.1 + 92.4 + 94.2 = 381.3 grade points
  3. Add up the total credit units for all semesters. For all five years, the total credit units would be:
    • 30 + 36 + 38 + 40 + 45 = 189 credit units
  4. Divide the total grade points earned by the total credit units to get your final CGPA:
    • CGPA = 381.3 / 189 = 2.02
    • So, your final CGPA is 2.02.

This calculation shows your overall academic performance throughout your academic journey from 100L to 500L.

Remember, CGPA is an essential indicator of your academic achievement and can impact various opportunities after graduation.

Keep working hard and striving for excellence!

If you need any clarifications, feel free to let me know in the comment box, and I will respond as soon as possible.

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