EDUCATION
How to Calculate GPA & CGPA in Nigerian Universities & Polytechnics (2024)
During my first year at the University, myself and many classmates were clueless about how to calculate our GPA, let alone CGPA.
The process of calculating CGPA seemed like a complex mathematical task, and some students resorted to paying senior students for help with the calculation.
However, I want to assure you that calculating CGPA is not as daunting as it may seem.
It is actually quite simple, and you can do it on your own by following the steps outlined in this post.
In this article, I will guide you through the easy method to calculate your GPA for both your first and second semesters. You will also learn how to convert GPA to CGPA.
Keep in mind that the method for calculating GPA and CGPA is the same for all Nigerian universities, as outlined in this post.
This article will be particularly helpful for firstyear and other students who may have questions about GPA and CGPA in Nigerian universities.
What is Nigerian Universities Grading System?
In Nigerian universities, the grading system is based on a wide range of scores.
Continuous assessment carries thirty (30) marks, while examination scores carry seventy (70) marks.
Your continuous assessment is composed of test scores, assignments, and class presentations.
Let me provide you with the grading system used in Nigerian universities:
SCORE  GRADE  POINTS  REMARK 

70 – 100  A  5  Excellent 
60 – 69  B  4  Very Good 
50 – 59  C  3  Good 
45 – 49  D  2  Pass 
40 – 44  E  1  Fair 
0 – 39  F  0  Fail 
What is GPA?
GPA, which stands for Grade Point Average, reflects your academic achievement at a college or university.
To calculate your GPA, divide the Total Grade Points by the Total Course Units received.
Below is a sample of a firstyear student’s first and secondsemester results at the University.
First Semester Course Outline
COURSE CODE  COURSE TITLE  UNIT 

ACC 101  Elements of Accounting I  2 
COS 101  Introduction to Computer Science  3 
PHI 101  Introduction to Logic  2 
MAN 101  Principles of Small Business Economics  2 
MTH 111  General Mathematics I  3 
MAN 141  Elements of Business Economics I  3 
GSP 101  The Use of English I  2 
GSP 105  Natural Science I  2 
Total  19 
First Semester Result
COURSE CODE  COURSE TITLE  SCORE  GRADE 

ACC 101  Elements of Accounting I  46  D 
COS 101  Introduction to Computer Science  75  A 
PHI 101  Introduction to Logic  66  B 
MAN 101  Principles of Small Business Economics  43  E 
MTH 111  General Mathematics I  54  C 
MAN 141  Elements of Business Economics I  87  A 
GSP 101  The Use of English I  49  D 
GSP 105  Natural Science I  57  C 
First Semester GPA Calculation
COURSE CODE  UNIT  GRADE  POINT  UNIT X POINT  TOTAL 

ACC 101  2  D  2  2 x 2  4 
COS 101  3  A  5  3 x 5  15 
PHI 101  2  B  4  2 x 4  8 
MAN 101  2  E  1  2 x 1  2 
MTH 111  3  C  3  3 x 3  9 
MAN 141  3  A  5  3 x 5  15 
GSP 101  2  D  2  2 x 2  4 
GSP 105  2  C  3  2 x 3  6 
Total  19  –  25  –  63 
CPA Calculation Formula
To calculate the CPA (Cumulative Point Average), you use the formula: Quality Point / Credit Unit or Total / Unit.
In this formula:
Unit refers to Credit Unit.
Total represents Quality Point.
To get your GPA for the first semester, divide the Total Quality Point (TQP) by the Total Credit Unit (TCU).
For example:
Total Quality Point (TQP) = 63
Total Credit Unit (TCU) = 19
GPA = 63 / 19 = 3.32
According to our calculation, the CPA for the first semester is 3.32.
Now let us calculate the GPA for the second semester.
Second Semester Course Outline
COURSE CODE  COURSE TITLE  UNIT 

ACC 102  Elements of Accounting II  2 
PSY 101  Introduction to Psychology  2 
BF 101  Introduction to Finance  2 
MTH 112  General Mathematics II  2 
MAN 142  Elements of Business Economics II  3 
GSP 102  The Use of English II  2 
GSP 106  Natural Science II  2 
Total  15 
Second Semester Result
The table below shows the secondsemester result we would use for the calculation.
COURSE CODE  COURSE TITLE  SCORE  GRADE 

ACC 102  Elements of Accounting II  65  B 
PSY 101  Introduction to Psychology  56  C 
BF 101  Introduction to Finance  44  E 
MTH 112  General Mathematics II  59  C 
MAN 142  Elements of Business Economics II  78  A 
GSP 102  The Use of English II  49  D 
GSP 106  Natural Science II  81  A 
Second Semester GPA Calculation
COURSE CODE  UNIT  GRADE  POINT  UNIT X POINT  TOTAL 

ACC 102  2  B  4  2 x 4  8 
PSY 101  2  C  3  2 x 3  6 
BF 101  2  E  1  2 x 1  2 
MTH 112  2  C  3  2 x 3  6 
MAN 142  3  A  5  3 x 5  15 
GSP 102  2  D  2  2 x 2  4 
GSP 106  2  A  5  2 x 5  10 
Total  15  –  23  –  51 
To calculate your GPA for the second semester, divide the total points by the total number of credit units.
Total Quality Point (TQP) = 51
Total Credit Units (TCU) = 15
GPA = 51/15 = 3.4
Based on our calculation, the GPA for the first semester is 3.4.
Now, we can move on to calculate the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA).
What is CGPA?
CGPA, short for cumulative grade point average, involves combining your first and second semester GPAs.
In the University, an academic session includes both the first and second semesters.
To calculate the CGPA, you add up the Total Quality Point (TQP) and divide it by the Total Credit Unit (TCU) for both semesters of the first year.
The CGPA formula is expressed as Σ TQP/TCU.
FIRST YEAR  TOTAL QUALITY POINT (TQP)  TOTAL CREDIT UNIT (TCU) 

First semester  63  19 
Second semester  51  15 
Total  114  34 
CGPA = Σ TQP/TCU
CGPA = 114 + 34 = 3.35
Based on our calculations, the CGPA for the first year stands at 3.35.
Now, let’s proceed to calculate the cumulative CGPA for the entire fouryear course.
How to Calculate Final Year CGPA
The CGPA at graduation is the sum of your Total Quality Points (TQP) and Total Credit Units (TCU) accumulated from your first to final year.
To calculate this, we will add up the Total Quality Point (TQP) and Total Credit Unit (TCU) for each academic session.
Here is the CGPA progression of a student from their first year to the final year.
LEVEL  TOTAL QUALITY POINT (TQP)  TOTAL CREDIT UNIT (TCU) 

100  114  34 
200  120  32 
300  123  30 
400  130  28 
Total  487  124 
Final CGPA = Σ TQP/TCU
Final CGPA = 487/124 = 3.93
From our calculation, the graduating CGPA is 3.93.
The same procedure applies to students studying a five (5) or six (6) years course at the University.
Nigerian Degree Categories
CGPA  DEGREE CATEGORY 

4.50 – 5.0  First Class 
3.50 – 4.49  Second Class (Upper) 
2.50 – 3.49  Second Class Lower 
Less than 2.49  Third Class 
Example of CGPA Calculation
Let’s go through the process of calculating your final CGPA step by step, starting from 100L to 500L:
 Multiply the GPA of each semester by the credit units for that semester to find the total grade points earned for each semester.
 For example, in 100L, with a total of 30 credit units, the total grade points earned would be:
 1.80 GPA x 30 credit units = 54 grade points
 Add up the total grade points earned for all semesters. For all five years, the total grade points earned would be:
 54 + 45.6 + 95.1 + 92.4 + 94.2 = 381.3 grade points
 Add up the total credit units for all semesters. For all five years, the total credit units would be:
 30 + 36 + 38 + 40 + 45 = 189 credit units
 Divide the total grade points earned by the total credit units to get your final CGPA:
 CGPA = 381.3 / 189 = 2.02
 So, your final CGPA is 2.02.
This calculation shows your overall academic performance throughout your academic journey from 100L to 500L.
Remember, CGPA is an essential indicator of your academic achievement and can impact various opportunities after graduation.
Keep working hard and striving for excellence!
If you need any clarifications, feel free to let me know in the comment box, and I will respond as soon as possible.

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